AThe "chain of survival" metaphor was developed by Mary M. Newman, MS, of the Sudden Cardiac Arrest Foundation in 1988, it recognises that when someone suffers an out of hospital sudden cardiac arrest (SCA) if certain things happen in a certain order, their chances of survival increase significantly.

This concept is now known as the Chain of Survival.

The Chain of Survival is made up of four links; three of which can be strengthened by first aiders in the workplace, or members of the public who take some time to learn basic life skills.

The first link is early recognition (understanding the signs & symptoms & able to recognise someone is in Cardiac arrest )

The second link is early (effective) CPR (Cardiopulmonary Resuscitation) which can keep their heart going until an automatic external defibrillator (AED) arrives.

The third link is early defibrillation-For every minute the person doesn’t have a defibrillator attached to their chest, their chances of survival reduce by 10%. 

The the fourth link is early advanced care, delivered by paramedics. If you start CPR within 2 minutes, place a defibrillator on their chest in four minutes and a paramedic arrives in 8 minutes, the casualty has a 40% chance of survival.


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